Access Point: A device that allows wireless-equipped computers and other devices to communicate with a wired network.  
ActiveX: A technology from Microsoft that links desktop applications to the World Wide Web. Using ActiveX tools, interactive web content can be created. 
Activity: An appointment or meeting, task, or other calendar entry scheduled by a user for that user, another user, a contact, or any combination.
Activity History: Stores all the emails and notes related to the current record.
Address: Identifies the location of an Internet resource. Examples an e-mail address or a web address 
Administrator:       A user with Administrator permissions, which enables him or her to grant access to other users.
Alert: A notice that appears at the top of a dashboard.
Backbone: A term that is often used to describe the main network connections that comprise the Internet or other major network. 
Bandwidth:  A measurement of the amount of data that can be transmitted over a network at any given time. The higher the network’s bandwidth, the greater the volume of data that can be transmitted. 
BI: Business Intelligence – A recognised industry term for organisational analytics, including historical, current, and predictive views of business operations.
Binary file: A file that cannot be read by standard text editor programs like Notepad or Simple Text.
BinHex: A common file format for Macintosh computers; it enables a binary file to be transferred over the Internet as an ASCII file.  
Bit: A binary digit (either 0 or 1); it is the most basic unit of data that can be recognised and processed by a computer. 
BMP: Bitmap file; a common image format on Windows computers. Files of this type usually have the suffix “.bmp” as part of their name.
Bookmark: A feature available in certain programs like Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Acrobat Reader; it is a shortcut you can use to get to a particular webpage
Bounce: A term applied to an e-mail message when it is returned to you as undeliverable. 
Bridge: A device used for connecting two Local Area Networks (LANs) or two segments of the same LAN; bridges forward packets without analysing or re-routing them. 
Broadband Connection: A high-speed Internet connection
Browser: A program used to access World Wide Web pages. 
Buffer: On a multitasking system, a certain amount of RAM that is allocated as a temporary holding area so that the CPU can manipulate data before transferring it to a particular device. 
Buffered: Data that is collected but not made immediately available. 
Business Continuity Plan: Business Continuity Plan or “BCP” is a set of documents, instructions, and procedures which enable a business to respond to accidents, disasters, emergencies, and/or threats without any stoppage or hindrance in its key operations. 
Business Object: Any key business component that you want to track and manage. Examples include incidents, tasks, configuration items, attachments, audit history, etc
Byte: A group of adjacent binary digits that a computer processes as a unit to form a character such as the letter “C”. A byte consists of eight bits.
Cable Modem: A special type of modem that connects to a local cable TV line to provide a continuous connection to the Internet. Like an analog modem, a cable modem is used to send and receive data, but the difference is that transfer speeds are much faster. 
Cache: Refers to a region of computer memory where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access; or an optional file on your hard drive where such data also can be stored. 
Captcha: A challenge-response test in the form of an image of distorted text the user must enter that to determine whether the user is human or an automated bot.
Case-sensitive: Generally applies to a data input field; a case-sensitive restriction means lower-case letters are not equivalent to the same letters in upper-case. 
Category Displays search groups, quick actions, and reports in user-defined folders.
CD-R Drive: A type of disk drive that can create CD-ROMs and audio CDs. CD-R drives that feature multi session recording allow you to continue adding data to a compact disk which is very important if you plan on using the drive for backup. 
CD-ROM: Compact Disk, Read Only Memory; a high-capacity secondary storage medium. Information contained on a CD is read-only. Special CD-ROM mastering equipment available in the OIT Multimedia Lab can be reserved for creating new CDs.  
CD-RW, CD-R disk: A CD-RW disk allows you to write data onto it multiple times instead of just once (a CD-R disk). With a CD-R drive you can use a CD-RW disk just like a floppy or zip disk for backing up files, as well as for creating CD-ROMs and audio CDs. 
CGI: Common Gateway Interface; a mechanism used by most web servers to process data received from a client browser (e.g., a user). CGI scripts contain the instructions that tell the web server what to do with the data. 
Change A process for assessing and reducing the impact and risks of proposed changes.
Change Approval Board The people who approve the financial, technical, and operational impact of a request for change.
Change Management Transitioning something newly developed (i.e. an update to an existing production environment or something entirely new) from the service design phase into regular service operation.
Client: A program or computer that connects to and requests information from a server. Examples: Internet Explorer or Firefox. A client program also may be referred to as “client software” or “client-server software”. 
Client-server Technology: Refers to a connection between networked computers in which the services of one computer (the server) are requested by the other (the client). Information obtained is then processed locally on the client computer. 
Cloud Refers to using a network connection to access applications and data stored in other locations, often by accessing data centres using wide area networking (WAN) or regular internet connectivity.
Cloud Computing: A general term used to describe Internet services such as social networking services (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), online backup services, and applications that run within a Web browser. 
CMS: Content Management System’ is the collection of procedures used to manage work flow in a collaborative environment. In a CMS, data can be defined as nearly anything: documents, movies, pictures, phone numbers, scientific data, etc.
Compress: The process of making a file smaller so that it will save disk space and transfer faster over a network. The most common compression utilities are Winrar for PC or compatible computers (.zip files) and or Stuffit (.sit files) for Macintosh computers. 
Configuration A group of configuration items working together to deliver an IT service, or a recognisable part of an IT service.
Connect: A term that commonly refers to accessing a remote computer; also a message that appears at the point when two modems recognise each other. 
Cookie: A small piece of information you may be asked to accept when connecting to certain servers via a web browser. It is used throughout your session as a means of identifying you. A cookie is specific to, and sent only to the server that generated it. 
Counter An automatic character (number or letter) generator used to increment values.
Courseware: Software designed specifically for use in a classroom or other educational setting. 
CPU: Central processing unit; the part of a computer that oversees all operations and calculations. 
CSS: Cascading Style Sheet; A set of rules that define how web pages are displayed using CSS, designers can create rules that define how page 
Cursor: A special symbol that indicates where the next character you type on your screen will appear. You use your mouse or the arrow keys on your keyboard to move the cursor around on your screen. 
Customer An individual or group of individuals with whom you have an existing or potential business relationship.
Cyberspace: A term describing the world of computers and the society that uses them
DaaS: Desktop-as-a-Service – Also called virtual desktop or hosted desktop services, it is the outsourcing of a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) to a third- party service provider. 
Daemon: A special small program that performs a specific task; it may run all the time watching a system, or it can take action only when a task needs to be performed.
Dashboard One of many user-defined views of lists, multi-view lists, Outlook inbox, Outlook calendar, images, web browsers, link lists, and charts.
Data centre: A data centre is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls and security devices.
Database: A collection of information organised so that a computer application can quickly access selected information; it can be thought of as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organised by fields or records.
Decompress: Opposite of compressing a file; the process of restoring the file to its original size and format. 
Defragmentation: The process of rewriting parts of a file to contiguous sectors on a hard drive to increase the speed of access and retrieval. 
Degauss: A process used to remove magnetism from a computer monitors. Note flat-panel displays do not have a degauss button since magnetism doesn’t build up in them. 
Desktop: On computers like IBM PC or compatibles and Macintoshes, the backdrop where windows and icons for disks and applications reside. 
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol; a protocol that lets a server on a local network assign temporary IP addresses to a computer or other network devices. 
Dial up Connection: A connection from your computer that goes through a regular telephone line. You use special communications software to instruct your modem to dial a number to access another computer system or a network. 
Dialog Box: Sometimes referred to as a window; on a graphical user interface system, an enclosed area displayed by a program or process to prompt a user for entry of information in one or more fields. 
Dial-Up Adapter: A network component within Windows that enables you to connect to a dial up server via a modem. Users running dial-up connections on Windows computers must have Dial-Up Adapter installed and properly configured. 
Digital Asset: Intellectual content which has been digitized and can be referenced or retrieved online; for example, PowerPoint slides.
Digitize: Sometimes referred to as digital imaging; the act of translating an image, a sound, or a video clip into digital format for use on a computer. Also used to describe the process of converting coordinates on a map to x,y coordinates for input to a computer. All data a computer processes must be digitally encoded as a series of zeroes and ones. 
DIMM: Dual In-line Memory Module; a small circuit board that can hold a group of memory chips. A DIMM is capable of transferring 64 bits instead of the 32 bits each SIMM can handle. 
Directory: An area on a disk that contains files or additional divisions called “subdirectories” or “folders”. 
Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organisation after a natural or human-induced disaster. 
DNS: Domain Name System; a service for accessing a networked computer by name rather than by numerical, (IP) address.
Domain: Part of an Internet address. The network hierarchy consists of domains and subdomains. 
Download: The process of transferring one or more files from a remote computer to your local computer. The opposite action is upload. 
Dpi: Dots per inch; a measure of a printer’s resolution. The higher the number, the better the print quality. 
DRaaS: Disaster Recovery as a Service; a service that helps recover data in the event of a server failure or natural disaster.
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line; an always on broadband connection over standard phone lines. 
EAP: Extensible Authentication Protocol; a general protocol for authentication that also supports multiple authentication methods. 
EGA: Extended Graphics Adapter; a card (or board) usually found in older PCs that enables the monitor to display 640 pixels horizontally and 350 vertically. 
Emoticon: A combination of keyboard characters meant to represent a facial expression. Example: the characters 🙂 for a smiley face. 
Emulation: Refers to the ability of a program or device to imitate another program or device; communications software often include terminal emulation drivers to enable you to log on to a mainframe. 
Encryption: The manipulation of data to prevent accurate interpretation by all but those for whom the data is intended. 
Enterprise Service Management (ESM) Managing a service organisation with a suite of ITSM tools and applications applied to ITSM software to optimise its performance. 
EPS: Encapsulated PostScript; a graphics format that describes an image in the PostScript language. 
Ethernet Card: An adapter card that fits into a computer and connects to Ethernet cabling; different types of adaptor cards fit specific computers. Microcomputers connected to the campus network have some type of Ethernet card installed. 
Ethernet: A popular network technology that enables data to travel at 10 megabits per second. 
Expansion card: Also referred to as an expansion board; a circuit board you can insert into a slot inside your computer to give it added functionality. 
Extension: A suffix preceded by a period at the end of a filename; used to describe the file type.
Female Connector: A cable connector that has holes and plugs into a port or interface to connect one device to another. 
Field A piece of information within a business object. For example, fields in an employee object may include name, title, and location.
Filter: Can refer to a program that has the function of translating data into a different format or a pattern that prevents non-matching data from passing through 
Finger: A type of directory service on many UNIX systems. 
Firewall: A method of preventing unauthorised access to or from a particular network; firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or both. 
FireWire: A way to connect different pieces of equipment so they can quickly and easily share information.
Flash Drive: A small device that plugs into computer’s USB port and functions as a portable hard drive. 
Flash Memory: A type of memory that retains information even after power is turned off; commonly used in memory cards and USB flash drives for storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products. 
Folder: An area on a hard disk that contains a related set of files or alternatively, the icon that represents a directory or subdirectory. 
Font: A complete assortment of letters, numbers, and symbols of a specific size and design. 
Form A graphical display containing fields used to display and capture information.
Fragmentation: The scattering of parts of the same disk file over different areas of a disk; fragmentation occurs as files are deleted and new ones are added. 
Frames: A feature of some web browsers that enables a page to be displayed in separate scrollable windows. Frames can be difficult to translate for text-only viewing via ADA guidelines, so their use is increasingly being discouraged.  
Freeware: Copyrighted software available for downloading without charge; unlimited personal usage is permitted, but you cannot do anything else without express permission of the author. 
FTP: File Transfer Protocol; a method of exchanging files between computers via the Internet. 
Full-Screen Mode Viewing mode where you do not see the header bar and top-level tabs; you only see the current business object record or workspace.
GIF: Graphics Interchange Format; a format for a file that contains a graphic or a picture. Files of this type usually have the suffix “.gif” as part of their name. 
Gigabyte (Gig or GB): It’s usually sufficient to think of a gigabyte as approximately one billion bytes or 1000 megabytes.
GPS: Global Positioning System; a collection of Earth-orbiting satellites. In a more common context, GPS actually refers to a GPS receiver which uses a mathematical principle called “trilateration” that can tell you exactly where you are on Earth at any moment. 
Greyware Greyware refers to a malicious software or code that is considered to fall in the “grey area” between normal software and a virus. Greyware is a term for which all other malicious or annoying software such as adware, spyware, trackware, and other malicious code and malicious shareware fall under.
GUI: Graphical user interface; a mouse-based system that contains icons, drop-down menus, and windows where you point and click to indicate what you want to do. 
Handshaking: The initial negotiation period immediately after a connection is established between two modems. This is when the modems agree about how the data will be transmitted. The set of rules they agree on is called the protocol. 
Hard Disk: A storage device that holds large amounts of data, usually in the range of hundreds to thousands of megabytes. Although usually internal to the computer, some types of hard disk devices are attached separately for use as supplemental disk space. 
Hardware: The physical components of a computer including the keyboard, monitor, disk drive, and internal chips and wiring. Hardware is the counterpart of software. 
Header: The portion of an e-mail message or a network newsgroup posting that precedes the body of the message; it contains information like who the message is from, its subject, and the date. A header also is the portion of a packet that proceeds the actual data and contains additional information the receiver will need. 
Help Desk: A help desk is an information and assistance resource that troubleshoots problems with computers or similar products. 
Helper Application: A program used for viewing multimedia files that your web browser cannot handle internally; files using a helper application must be moved to your computer before being shown or played. 
Home Page A dashboard named Home Page scoped at a personal, role, or global level.
Host: A computer accessed by a user working at a remote location. Also refers to a specific computer connected to a TCP/IP network like the Internet. 
HTML: HyperText Markup Language; a language used for creating web pages. Various instructions and sets of tags are used to define how the document will look. 
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol; a set of instructions that defines how a web server and a browser should interact. Example: When you open a location (e.g., enter a URL) in your browser, what actually happens is an HTTP command is sent to the web server directing it to fetch and return the requested web page. 
Hyperlink: Connects one piece of information (anchor) to a related piece of information (anchor) in an electronic document. Clicking on a hyperlink takes you to directly to the linked destination which can be within the same document or in an entirely different document. Hyperlinks are commonly found on web pages, word documents and PDF files. 
Hypertext: Data that contains one or more links to other data; commonly seen in web pages and in online help files. Key words usually are underlined or highlighted. 
Hypervisor: A hypervisor, also called virtual machine manager (VMM), is one of many hardware virtualization techniques that allow multiple operating systems, termed guests, to run concurrently on a host computer. It is so named because it is conceptually one level higher than a supervisory program. The hypervisor presents to the guest operating systems a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems. Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the virtualized hardware resources. 
IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service; In the most basic cloud-service model, providers of IaaS offer computers – physical or (more often) virtual machines – and other resources.
Icon: A small picture or symbol that represents some object or function. Examples: a file folder for a directory; a rectangle with a bent corner for a file; or a miniature illustration for a program. 
ICS: Internet Connection Sharing; a feature in Windows that when enabled, allows you to connect computer on your home network to the Internet via one computer. 
IEEE 1394 port: An interface for attaching high-speed serial devices to your computer; IEEE 1394 connectors support plug and play.  
Image map: A graphic overlay that contains more than one area (or hot spot) which is clickable and links to another web page or anchor. Image maps provide an alternative to text links for directing the user to additional information. 
IMAP: Internet Message Access Protocol. A method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without downloading them to your local hard drive; it is the main difference between IMAP and POP3 which requires messages to be downloaded to a user’s hard drive before the message can be read. 
Incident A event indicating an interruption or reduction in service.
Incident Management The process responsible for managing the life cycle of all incidents. Incident management ensures that normal service operation is restored as quickly as possible and the business impact is minimised.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL®) A set of best-practice publications for IT service management. ITIL® gives guidance on the provision of quality IT services and the processes, functions, and other capabilities needed to support them.
Internet Radio: An audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet; broadcasts consist of a continuous stream. A drawback is the inability to control selection as you can when listening to traditional radio broadcasting. 
IP Address: Internet Protocol address; every computer connected to the Internet has a unique identifying number. Example: 192.168.100.2.
IRC: Internet Relay Chat; a system that enables two or more Internet users to conduct online discussions in real time.
IRQ:   Interrupt request; refers to a number associated with a serial port on an PC or compatible computer. It usually can be changed by flipping a dip switch. Occasionally, when you’re using a modem connect to the Internet, you may need to adjust the IRQ number assigned to the serial port which connects the modem to avoid conflicts with another device like your mouse. 
ISP: Internet Service Provider; an organisation or company that provides Internet connectivity.
IT service management (ITSM) The implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the needs of a business. IT service management is performed by IT service providers through an appropriate mix of people, processes, and information technology.
Java:   A general purpose programming language commonly used in conjunction with web pages that feature animation. Small Java applications are called Java applets; many can be downloaded and run on your computer by a Java-compatible browser like Firefox or Internet Explorer. 
JavaScript: A publicly available scripting language that shares many of the features of Java; it is used to add dynamic content (various types of interactivity) to web pages. 
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group; a graphics format which compresses an image to save space. Most images imbedded in web pages are GIFs, but sometimes the JPEG format is used (especially for detailed graphics or photographs). In some cases, you can click on the image to display a larger version with better resolution. 
Kerning: The amount of space between characters in a word; in desktop publishing, it is typically performed on pairs of letters or on a short range of text to fine-tune the character spacing. 
Key Performance Indicator (KPI) A metric that is used to help manage an IT service, process, plan, project, or other activity. KPIs are used to measure the achievement of critical success factors. 
Knowledge Base Repository for knowledge articles.
Knowledge Base (KB) A logical database containing data and information used for knowledge sharing and management.
Known Error Database (KEDB) A repository of previously identified and recorded errors or root causes with tested workarounds, which can be used as reference for similar problems in the future.
LAN: Local area network; a network that extends over a small area (usually within a square mile or less). Connects a group of computers for the purpose of sharing resources such as programs, documents, or printers. Shared files often are stored on a central file server. 
Leading: The vertical space between lines of text on a page; in desktop publishing, you can adjust the leading to make text easier to read. 
Learning Management System (LMS): Software used for developing, using, and storing course content of all types.
Learning Object: A chunk of course content that can be reused and independently maintained. Although each chunk is unique in its content and function, it must be able to communicate with learning systems using a standardised method not dependent on the system.
Log In, Log On: The process of entering your username and password to gain access to a particular computer.
MaaS: Metal-as-a-Service; The dynamic provisioning and deployment of whole physical servers, as opposed to the provisioning of virtual machines.  
MAC: Media Access Control; The hardware address of a device connected to a shared network. 
Mail Server: A networked computer dedicated to supporting electronic mail. You use a client program like Microsoft Outlook for retrieving new mail from the server and for composing and sending messages. 
Main Memory: The amount of memory physically installed in your computer. Also referred to as “RAM”. 
Mainframe: A very large computer capable of supporting hundreds of users running a variety of different programs simultaneously.
Malware: Software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer; common examples of malware include viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware. 
Managed Workstations: A Managed Workstation reduces downtime, improves maintenance, increases productivity and data security through an effective blend of Help Desk and on-site support. 
MAPI: Messaging Application Programming Interface; a system built into Microsoft Windows that enables different e-mail programs to interface to distribute e-mail. 
MDM: Mobile Device Management; Any routine or tool intended to distribute applications, data, and configuration settings to mobile communications devices. The intent of MDM is to optimize the functionality and security of a mobile communications network. 
Menu: In a graphical user interface, a bar containing a set of titles that appears at the top of a window. Once you display the contents of a menu by clicking on its title, you can select any active command (e.g., one that appears in bold type and not in a lighter, gray type). 
Microsoft Exchange: Microsoft Exchange Server is the server side of a client–server, collaborative application product developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows: A group of operating systems for PC or compatible computers; Windows provides a graphical user interface so you can point and click to indicate what you want to do. 
Milestone A step that marks a significant change or stage in development.
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions; a protocol that enables you to include various types of files (text, audio, video, images, etc.) as an attachment to an e-mail message. 
Modem: A device that enables a computer to send and receive information over a normal telephone line. Modems can either be external (a separate device) or internal (a board located inside the computer’s case) and are available with a variety of features such as error correction and data compression.
Moderator: A person who reviews and has the authority to block messages posted to a supervised or “moderated” network newsgroup or online community.
Module A specific software-based process used to support a HEAT workflow.
Monitor: The part of a computer that contains the screen where messages to and from the central processing unit (CPU) are displayed. 
MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group; a high quality video format commonly used for files found on the Internet. Usually a special helper application is required to view MPEG files. 
MRB: Managed Remote Back Up; a service that provides users with a system for the backup, storage, and recovery of data using cloud computing.
MSP: Managed Service Provider; A business model for providing information-technology services.
Multimedia: The delivery of information, usually to a personal computer, in a combination of different formats including text, graphics, animation, audio, and video. 
Multitasking: The ability of a CPU to perform more than one operation at the same time.
NaaS: Network as a Service; a category of cloud services that provides users with the capability of where the capability provided to the cloud service user is to using the network/transport connectivity services and/or inter-cloud network connectivity services. 
Nameserver: A computer that runs a program for converting Internet domain names into the corresponding IP addresses and vice versa. 
NAT: Network Address Translation; a standard that enables a LAN to use a set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a single IP address for communications with the Internet. 
Network Adapter: A device that connects your computer to a network; also called an adapter card or network interface card. 
Network Hub: A common connection point for devices on a network. 
network security: Network security consists of the provisions and policies adopted by a network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorised access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and network-accessible resources. Network Security is the authorisation of access to data in a network, which is controlled by a network administrator. Dataprise uses state-of-the-art network security techniques while providing authorized personnel access to important files and applications. Every organisation’s needs are different and hackers are always adapting their techniques, so we are extremely serious about staying up to date with the latest network security tools, threats and industry developments. To learn more please click here.
Network: A group of interconnected computers capable of exchanging information. A network can be as few as several personal computers on a LAN or as large as the Internet, a worldwide network of computers. 
NNTP: Network News Transport Protocol; the protocol used for posting, distributing, and retrieving network news messages.
Notification A message to users about the system. It appears to users when they log in for the first time, but not after that.
OCR: Optical character recognition; the act of using a visual scanning device to read text from hard copy and translate it into a format a computer can access (e.g., an ASCII file). OCR systems include an optical scanner for reading text and sophisticated software for analysing images. 
on-Cloud: Dataprise realizes that businesses are moving more and more of their critical infrastructure to Cloud-based providers. ‘On-Cloud’ is currently our own term coined for providing management and support for your Cloud-based systems and processes.
On-Site: At-place-of-work-or-business support, typically provided by a technically qualified individual.
OpenType OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
On-premises Software that is installed and runs on computers within the premises (in the building) of the person or organisation using the software, rather than at a remote facility such as a server farm or cloud.
PaaS: Platform as a Service, in the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform that typically including an operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. 
Packet: A unit of transmission in data communications. The TCP/IP protocol breaks large data files into smaller chunks for sending over a network so that less data will have to be re-transmitted if errors occur. 
Page: Refers to an HTML document on the World Wide Web or to a particular website.
Palette: The range of colors a computer or an application is able to display. 
Parallel Port: An interface on a computer that supports transmission of multiple bits at the same time; almost exclusively used for connecting a printer. 
Password: A secret combination of characters used to access a secured resource such as a computer, a program, a directory, or a file; often used in conjunction with a username. 
PC: Usually refers to an IBM PC or compatible, or when used generically, to a “personal computer”.
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant; a small hand-held computer that in the most basic form, allows you to store names and addresses, prepare to-do lists, schedule appointments, etc. 
PDF: Portable Document Format; a type of formatting that enables files to be viewed on a variety of computers. 
Peer-To-Peer: A type of connection between two computers; both perform computations, store data, and make requests from each other.
Perl: Practical Extraction and Report Language; a programming language that is commonly used for writing CGI scripts used by most servers to process data received from a client browser. 
Phishing: A con that scammers use to electronically collect personal information from unsuspecting users. 
PING: Packet Internet Groper; a utility used to determine whether a particular computer is currently connected to the Internet. It works by sending a packet to the specified IP address and waiting for a reply. 
Pixel: Stands for one picture element (one dot on a computer monitor); commonly used as a unit of measurement. 
Plug-In: A program used for viewing multimedia files that your web browser cannot handle internally; files using a plug-in do not need to be moved to your computer before being shown or played. 
Pop-up Blocker: Any application that disables the pop-up, pop-over, or pop-under ad windows that appear when you use a web browser. 
Post: The act of sending a message to a particular network newsgroup.
PostScript: A page description language primarily used for printing documents on laser printers; it is the standard for desktop publishing because it takes advantage of high resolution output devices. 
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol; a type of connection over telephone lines that gives you the functionality of a direct ethernet connection. 
Priority The criteria that determine when business objects are processed. Based on urgency and impact.
Problem Management The process responsible for managing the life cycle of all problems. Problem management proactively prevents incidents from happening and minimises the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.
Program: A set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a specific task. 
Protocol: A set of rules that regulate how computers exchange information. 
Proxy: Refers to a special kind of server that functions as an intermediate link between a client application (like a web browser) and a real server. 
Public Domain Software: Any non-copyrighted program; this software is free and can be used without restriction. 
QuickTime: A video format developed by Apple Computer commonly used for files found on the Internet; an alternative to MPEG. 
Record A collective unit of business object data. 
Release The process of planning, designing, building, configuration, and testing of hardware and software in order to create release components ready for implementation in a live environment.
Release Review Board Performs a post-implementation review of milestones.
Report A display of information captured from the HEAT database.
Request Offering A service item offered by a provider that an end user can request through the Service Catalog.
Role Device-specific perspectives and activated modules designed to enable users to see modules and perspectives relevant to their work or position. 
RAM: Random Access Memory; the amount of memory available for use by programs on a computer.
Record: A set of fields that contain related information; in database type systems, groups of similar records are stored in files. 
Registry: A database used by Windows for storing configuration information.
Remote Backup: A remote, online, or managed backup service is a service that provides users with a system for the backup and storage of computer files.  
Remote Desktop: A Windows feature that allows you to have access to a Windows session from another computer in a different location (XP and later).
Remote Login: An interactive connection from your desktop computer over a network or telephone lines to a computer in another location (remote site). 
ROM: Read Only Memory; a special type of memory used to store programs that start a computer and do diagnostics. 
Router: A device used for connecting two Local Area Networks (LANs); routers can filter packets and forward them according to a specified set of criteria. 
RTF: Rich Text Format; a type of document formatting that enables special characteristics like fonts and margins to be included within an ASCII file. 
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) A methodology used in problem management to analyse the core issue (root cause) that led to a series of incidents. The root cause is an element or factor that, when removed, restores normalcy and prevents the problem from reoccurring.
Response Time The time taken to respond to a logged ticket. The first response time refers to the time taken to respond to a ticket for the very first time after it was logged.
Resolution Time The time taken to resolve an incident or problem and bring it to closure.
SaaS: Software as a Service; a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud.
Safe Mode: A way of starting your Windows computer that can help you diagnose problems; access is provided only to basic files and drivers. 
SAN: A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated storage network that provides access to consolidated, block level storage. SANs primarily are used to make storage devices  accessible to servers so that the devices appear as locally attached to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the regular network by regular devices.
SATA: Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or Serial ATA. An interface used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard that provides a better, more efficient interface; Serial ATA is likely to replace the previous standard, Parallel ATA (PATA), which has become dated.
Satellite Transmission: A method of data transmission; the sender beams data up to an orbiting satellite and the satellite beams the data back down to the receiver.
Screen Reader: A software program that translates text on a Web page into audio output; typically used by individuals with vision impairment.
Scroll Bar: In a graphical user interface system, the narrow rectangular bar at the far right of windows or dialog boxes. 
Secure Server: A special type of file server that requires authentication before access is granted. 
Security Token: A small device used to provide an additional level of authorisation to access a particular network service; the token itself may be embedded in some type of object like a key fob or on a smart card. Also referred to as an authentication token. 
Self Service Users logging in as Self Service see the Self Service home page. These users can create service requests, report issues, and approve requests.
Self-Extracting File: A type of compressed file that you can execute (e.g., double-click on the filename) to begin the decompression process; no other decompression utility is required. 
Self-Service Portal A self-service portal is a website or app that enables users—whether they’re customers, employees, suppliers, or partners—to perform high-value transactions, from simple account updates to paying bills, managing support tickets, and more.
Serial Port: An interface on a computer that supports transmission of a single bit at a time; can be used for connecting almost any type of external device including a mouse, a modem, or a printer.
Server: A computer that is responsible for responding to requests made by a client program or computer. Also referred to as a “file server”. 
Service Catalog A database or structured document with information about all live IT services, including those available for deployment. 
Service Desk A single point of contact for users and customers.
Service Desk Analyst Service Desk Analysts typically aid Self Service users if they need to create, manage, and update service requests.
Service Desk Console The console where most users interact with the application, creating incidents, resolving problems, running reports, and so on.
Service Request A request to IT for an activity that has a well-defined IT procedure.
Shareware: Copyrighted software available for downloading on a free, limited trial basis; if you decide to use the software, you’re expected to register and pay a small fee. 
Signature: A file containing a bit of personal information that you can set to be automatically appended to your outgoing e-mail messages; many network newsreaders also have this capability. 
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; a method of handling outgoing electronic mail.
Software as a service (SaaS) A software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted by the vendor. It is sometimes referred to as “on-demand software.”
Software: Any program that performs a specific function. Examples: word processing, spreadsheet calculations, or electronic mail. 
Spam: Email spam, also known as junk email or unsolicited bulk email, is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. 
Spyware: Any software that covertly gathers user information, usually for advertising purposes, through the user’s Internet connection.
SSID: Service Set Identifier; a name that identifies a wireless network. 
Streaming (streaming media): A technique for transferring data over the Internet so that a client browser or plug-in can start displaying it before the entire file has been received; used in conjunction with sound and pictures. 
Subdirectory: An area on a hard disk that contains a related set of files; on IBM PC or compatibles, a level below another directory.
Survey A way to find out how well a process is running.
Team A pool of employees who can be assigned tasks.
Telnet:   A generic term that refers to the process of opening a remote interactive login session regardless of the type of computer you’re connecting to. 
Template: A record with several fields already completed by default.
Token: A group of bits transferred between computers on a token-ring network. 
Toolbar: On a graphical user interface system, a bar near the top of an application window that provides easy access to frequently used options. 
Trojan Horse: A harmless-looking program designed to trick you into thinking it is something you want, but which performs harmful acts when it runs. 
TrueType: A technology for outline fonts that is built into all Windows and Macintosh operating systems.  
Twisted Pair Cable: A type of cable that is typically found in telephone jacks; two wires are independently insulated and are twisted around each other. 
Two-factor Authentication: An extra level of security achieved using a security token device; users have a personal identification number (PIN) that identifies them as the owner of a particular token. 
UNIX: A popular multitasking computer system often used as a server for electronic mail or for a website. 
upload: The process of transferring one or more files from your local computer to a remote computer. The opposite action is download. 
URL Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a unique address on the World Wide Web.
USB port: An interface used for connecting a Universal Serial Bus (USB) device to computer; these ports support plug and play. 
USB: Universal Serial Bus; a connector on the back of almost any new computer that allows you to quickly and easily attach external devices such as mice, joysticks or flight yokes, printers, scanners, modems, speakers, digital cameras or webcams, or external storage devices. Current operating systems for Windows and Macintosh computers support USB, so it’s simple to install the device drivers. When a new device is connected, the operating system automatically activates it and begins communicating. USB devices can be connected or disconnected at any time. 
User An individual who works in the HEAT system. Each user possesses a user account that defines important security information.
User interface The screen area of the HEAT Service Management application, comprised of elements including the toolbar, navigator bar, and workspace.
Username: A name used in conjunction with a password to gain access to a computer system or a network service.
Utility: Commonly refers to a program used for managing system resources such as disk drives, printers, and other devices; utilities sometimes are installed as memory-resident programs. 
VDI: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure or “VDI,” is a desktop-centric service that hosts users’ desktop environments on remote servers and/or blade PCs, which are accessed over a network using a remote display protocol.
Virtual Hosting: Virtual hosting is a method for hosting multiple domain names on a computer using a single IP address. This allows one machine to share its resources, such as memory and processor cycles, to use its resources more efficiently. 
Virtual Memory: A technique that enables a certain portion of hard disk space to be used as auxiliary memory so that your computer can access larger amounts of data than its main memory can hold at one time. 
Virtual Reality: An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software to simulate the look and feel of a real environment. A user wears earphones, a special pair of gloves, and goggles that create a 3D display. 
Virtualization: Virtualization is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, a storage device or network resources. In hardware virtualization, the term host machine refers to the actual machine on which the virtualization takes place; the term guest machine, however, refers to the virtual machine.
Virus: A program intended to alter data on a computer in an invisible fashion, usually for mischievous or destructive purposes. Viruses are often transferred across the Internet as well as by infected diskettes and can affect almost every type of computer. Special antivirus programs are used to detect and eliminate them. 
VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol; a means of using the Internet as the transmission medium for phone calls. An advantage is you do not incur any additional surcharges beyond the cost of your Internet access. 
VPN: Virtual Private Networking; a means of securely accessing resources on a network by connecting to a remote access server through the Internet or other network. 
Workflow: A business process that can be triggered by a user action, a time-based event, or another business process.
Workspace: Displays forms and dashboards for the modules. Workspaces are specific to the different user roles.
WAIS: Wide Area Information Server; a program for finding documents on the Internet. Usually found on gopher servers to enable searching text-based documents for a particular keyword. 
WAN: Wide Area Network; a group of networked computers covering a large geographical area (e.g., the Internet). 
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol; a set of communication protocols for enabling wireless access to the Internet. 
WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy; a security protocol for wireless local area networks defined in the 802.11b standard. WEP provides the same level of security as that of a wired LAN. 
Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity; A generic term from the Wi-Fi Alliance that refers to of any type of 802.11 network (e.g., 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, etc.). Products approved as “Wi-Fi Certified” (a registered trademark) are certified as interoperable with each other for wireless communications. 
Wild Card: A special character provided by an operating system or a particular program that is used to identify a group of files or directories with a similar characteristic. Useful if you want to perform the same operation simultaneously on more than one file. Example: the asterisk (*) that can be used in DOS to specify a groups of files such as *.txt. 
Window: On a graphical user interface system, a rectangular area on a display screen. Windows are particularly useful on multitasking systems which allow you to perform a number of different tasks simultaneously. Each task has its own window which you can click on to make it the current process. Contrast to a “dialog box” which is used to respond to prompts for input from an application. 
Windows: A casual way of referring to the Microsoft Windows operating systems. 
Wireless (networking) The ability to access the Internet without a physical network connection. 
Wizard: A special utility within some applications that is designed to help you perform a particular task.
WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network; the computers and devices that make up a wireless network. 
Worm: A program that makes copies of itself and can spread outside your operating system worms can damage computer data and security in much the same way as viruses. 
WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access; a standard designed to improve on the security features of WEP. 
Workaround A temporary solution to a known error that minimizes or eliminates the impact of an incident or problem.
XML: Extensible Markup Language; A markup language for coding web documents that allows designers to create their own customised tags for structuring a page.
Zero-day: Zero-day attack, threat or virus is a computer threat that tries to exploit computer application vulnerabilities that are unknown to others or the software developer, also called zero-day vulnerabilities. 
Zip drive: A high capacity floppy disk drive from Iomega Corporation; the disks it uses are a little bit larger than a conventional diskette and are capable of holding 100 MB or 250 MB of data. 
Zip: A common file compression format for PC or compatibles; the utility WinZip or Winrar is used for compressing and decompressing files. Zipped files usually end with a “.zip” file extension. A special kind of zipped file is self-extracting and ends with a “.exe” extension. Macintosh OSX also supports the .zip format and has tools that can compress and decompress zip files.

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